Hamsadhvani (Sanskrit: हम्सध्वनि, Tamil: ஹம்ஸத்வனி) also known as Hansadhwani, is a rāga in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is an audava rāgam (or owdava rāga, meaning pentatonic scale). It is a janya rāga (derived scale), as it does not have all the seven swaras (musical notes).
Hamsadhvani is also extensively used in Hindustani music and said to be borrowed into it from Carnatic music. It was created by the Carnatic composer Ramaswami Dikshitar (1735-1817) and brought into Hindustani music by Ustad Aman Ali Khan of the Bhendibazaar gharana.
Structure and Lakshana
Hamsadhvani does not contain madhyamam or dhaivatam. It is a pentatonic scale (audava-audava ragam in Carnatic music classification – audava meaning ‘of 5′). Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows:
ārohaṇa : S R2 G3 P N3 S
avarohaṇa : S N3 P G3 R2 S
The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chathusruthi rishabham, antara gandharam, panchamam and kakali nishadam.
Hamsadhvani may be considered to be a janya rāgam of Shankarabharanam, the 29th Melakarta rāgam, although it can also be considered to be derived from other melakarta rāgams, Sarasangi, Kalyani or Latangi, by dropping both madhyamam and dhaivatam. It is an elusive question as to whether Hamsadhvani is a janya of this or that melakarta. In Hindustani music it is associated with Bilaval thaat (equivalent of Shankarabharanam).